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Series ballasts use two wires for connections to each end of a fluorescent tube. Series wiring uses a non-shunted lampholder, with each side of the lampholder isolated from the other side.
With a two lamp series ballast, if one lamp fails the other lamp connected to that ballast will not light. Generally, rapid start, programmed start, and dimmable ballasts are wired in series.
4 Individual wires, 2 common wires
One 2 lamp and one 1 lamp ballast
If one lamp fails or is removed in the series connected section, then all lamps in that section will turn off, but the lamps in the parallel circuit remain on.
6 Individual wires, 2 common wires
Series Ballast Wiring (4 Lamps)